Methods of Pest and Disease Control in Plants

Methods of Pest and Disease Control in Plants

The methods of pest and disease control in plants are fast becoming the preferred method of controlling pests. The biological and chemical methods are the most important methods of pest and disease control in plants.

1. Major Type of Methods for Pest and Disease Control

1.1 Biological Methods

These biological techniques involve the application of specific hormones to insects or a controlled release of insect into the environment. These techniques have the added benefit of reduced environmental toxins compared to chemical methods of pest control in plant.

1.2 Chemical Methods

Chemical methods of pest control in plant kill more than the targeted population of pests, and these pesticides have many side effects on the human population living nearby. The human beings living nearby become ill with respiratory and reproductive disorders.

2. Use of Micro-organism In Biological Techniques is Safe

Biological methods of pest control in the plant do not cause these problems. These techniques involve the use of micro-organisms that are naturally occurring in nature. This means that the organisms do not create any sort of problem for the human beings. These microorganisms however, when introduced into the soil can help in the efficient pest control by reducing the numbers of pests and thereby ensuring plant growth and development. The major advantage of using these natural methods of pest control is that chemical methods of pest control in the plant are not very effective in nature.

3. Use of Enzyme In Biological Methods

Biological methods of pest and disease control in plants mainly use enzymes. These enzymes are produced by the microorganisms living in the soil. These microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, yeasts and others. When these microorganisms are activated by an enzyme, it starts to digest the food particle and produce chemical substance known as free radicals, which in turn helps in destroying the pests.

4. Types of Chemical Methods

There are two major types of chemical methods of pest control in plant:

  • Systemic insecticides
  • Plant bactericides.

4.1 Systemic Insecticides

Systemic insecticides are usually applied during a normal plant growth cycle. They affect the root and aerial part of the plant and the insects feed on the roots. They are most effective if they are used during early spring or late summer.

4.2 Chemical-based Pest Repellents

They are organic in nature, are also used as a controlling method for various pests.

5. Insecticides and Pesticides

The most commonly used methods of pest and disease control in plants are the chemical methods of pesticides. Some of the insecticides do have insecticidal effects only and some of them can prevent pests from reproducing. When you apply any pesticide, please make sure that you read the instructions carefully. The chemicals should be applied carefully and it is always advisable to follow the directions indicated in the leaflet of the pesticide. If you are unable to follow the directions then make sure you contact the manufacturer or distributor of the pesticide for proper instructions.

6. Organic Pesticides

Organic pesticides are most commonly used in the agriculture sector and they are made from natural ingredients. These chemicals are not very toxic and have no side effects. But when these pesticides are applied in the early morning or evening, there is a possibility that these chemicals may be absorbed by the milk and may cause health problems for the inhabitants living nearby. So one must be very careful about the use of these chemicals.

7. Role of Pesticides In Pest and Disease Control

Pesticides contain various chemical ingredients and when exposed to the air, they can react with other elements present in the soil. These other elements react with the insecticides and the result is that they act as repellents against the pests. However, this method has some limitations. The insecticides cannot be used on trees and there are chances of reaction with the local atmosphere. So these methods are better than that.

8. Limitations of Using Chemicals

Chemical methods are mostly adopted by the farmers to get rid of pests. The chemicals involve risks and are not preferred by the people living nearby. In spite of this, there are chances that some of the insects may be able to adapt to this method and there are chances that the problem will reappear in the near future.

9. Conclusion

Using different biological and chemical methods of pest and disease control in plants is beneficial because they help in killing pests and prevent the diseases caused by them in plants.

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