Abiotic Diseases of Plants

Abiotic Diseases of Plants

The word “abiotic” describes any condition in which the living organism is surrounded by an environment that favors its survival. This list of Abiotic diseases of plants is arranged by the type of environment and life form they occur in; these plants are then presented in order of their prevalence.

1. Pathogens

These are potentially fatal infectious agents. Some pathogens may be plant, animal, or human. A few examples of pathogenic agents include bacteria and fungus. Fungi that infest soil include Clostridium difficile, Alternaria, Botrytis cambogia, Eragrostis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alternaria data. Botulism, salmonella, and e-coli are examples of pathogenic bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In cases where the plants are affected, the affected plants may be killed; and the dead roots and stems must be removed for screening and cleaning.

2. Soluble and Insoluble Detergents

These substances interact with soil particles to remove organic materials and provide nutrition to the plant. Soluble detergents improve soil structure and aid in plant growth. Insoluble detergents, however, form a greasy substance on the surface of the soil. This substance attracts microorganisms that pollute the soil. Examples of soluble detergents include chlorine and bleach.

3. Bacteria

This group of microorganisms are neither plant nor animal. They are negatively charged and grow by consuming organic materials. They live in wet, dark places. Some are heroes, a spore-forming rod like those found in little green plants. Aerobes are the major factor in plant soil decomposition, so they should be removed at the first sign of the disorder. Fungi are a different class of pathogen, a type of fungus that infects living plants.

4. Chlorine Compounds

They are common toxicants and reduce the productivity of the plant. A number of environmental chlorine compounds are available which do not have chlorination properties. Chloramine is a compound that serves as a fungicide and a bleach. Chloroform is a gas that evaporates with moisture and becomes poisonous when exposed to oxygen. It is widely used as an odorizer and solvent.

5. Pathogenic Fungi

It feed on plant tissues, seeds, and stem systems. They cause leaf spot, a disease that destroys entire leaves and stems. There are different types of pathogenic bacteria and yeasts that can infect plants. A good example is Botulism, which is caused by a type of bacteria. Fungi and other pathogens may also affect vegetables and fruits by damaging their tender roots or structures and by releasing mycotoxins into the soil.

6. Reduced Water Supply

Abiotic diseases of plants are normally due to reduced water supply. It has been observed that diseases such as leaf spot and scale insects are usually caused by reduced water supply. With this, the soil will get drier due to evapotranspiration. This process will increase the level of acidity in the soil which will subsequently affect the root structure of the plant. Therefore, a well-maintained irrigation system will help to prevent these diseases.

7. Reduced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Solubility In Soil

A lack of water supply will reduce the nitrogen and phosphorous solubility in the soil. These soluble substances are important for plant development and life process. In fact, these two substances make up a major part of the plant’s nitrogen requirement. If the plant is unable to obtain sufficient amount of these chemicals in its soil, it would be unable to grow properly. A plant with poor soil structure will lack the required number of microorganisms that help to digest and use the nutrients present in the soil. Therefore, if the proper amount of microorganisms is not present in the soil, the plant’s growth will also be adversely affected.

8. Prevention of Plants from Diseases

In some situations, diseases of plants occur due to lack of adequate water may also be due to soil. Diseases of plants can be prevented by ensuring proper watering of the plants. Watering should be done before the soil surface dries out from sun or water vapor. One should also avoid using chemical-based fertilizers because these tend to burn the surface of the soil and reduce the fertility of the soil. Using organic fertilizers is more beneficial to the health of the plant.

9. Conclusion

When a plant is infected with an Abiotic disease, it will experience drought-like conditions. The root of the affected plant would become dry and die. This condition can be prevented if adequate watering is provided to the plant during the dry season. However, the best time to give enough watering is during early spring when the soil is moist and abundant in nutrients. A regular watering routine can help prevent the occurrence of Abiotic diseases of plants and thus enhance the quality of the plant.

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